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Title: Impacto e degradação microbiana de efluentes da indústria sucro - Alcooleira no baixo Rio Paraíba do Sul, RJ
Keywords: Cana de açúcar;  Vinhoto;  Metabolismo bacteriano;  Matéria orgânica;  Potássio;  Bioensaio;  Rio Paraíba do Sul;  Sugar cane;  Bacterial metabolism;  Organic matter;  Potassium;  Bioassay;  Paraiba do Sul River
Issue Date: 15-Apr-2008
Abstract: The pollution in rivers caused by sugar cane agriculture and industry is a result of runoff and point source discharge of sugar cane effluents, mainly vinasse with high organic content, oxygen biological demand and suspended solids. Geochemical tools can be used to characterize the organic matter from effluents, like determining origin and environmental trophic state. Microbiological analyses are also important, as microorganisms degraded organic matter and establish the ecosystem dynamic equilibrium. The aim of this work was to characterize the impact and microbial degradation of vinasse in the Low River Paraíba do Sul. Analyses were performed in water and sediment along the fluvial mixture zone in the beginning (Campaign I -07/2006 e III 07/2007) and at the end of crop (Campaign III 10/2006). In laboratory were performed bioassays to estimate the vinasse potential biodegradation. The samples were collected upstream and downstream ranging in 200 m from the effluent discharge source, as well as at the mouth of the river how reference. The sediment samples were fractionated in fine (<63 µm) and coarse (>63 µm). In water, high values of temperature and dissolved oxygen with low values of pH were indicators of vinasse discharge and high concentration of potassium was fundamental to identify the presence of vinasse in the effluent. In sediments, differences were found between organic and inorganic phosphorus concentration, and the high values of organic carbon, C:N ratio and potassium were efficient descriptors of effluent and sugar cane agriculture. Similar concentrations of organic and inorganic phosphorus, and the C:N ratios around 12 demonstrated that the mouth of river was influenced by agriculture, suggested that the sedimentary organic matter originates from phytoplankton and also vacular plants. The fine fraction was significant correlated with the most part of parameters and was useful in the impact evaluation, as the main component of vinasse, the element potassium, was concentrated in grains smaller than 63 µm. The microbiological analyses revealed that the effluent influence in the bacterial community enhancing biomass, energetic gain (analyzed by ETSA) in both water and sediment at beginning of crop. However the organic fraction accumulated in the sediment inhibited aerobic respiration and reduced the capacity of environmental auto-depuration at the end of harvest period. Microorganisms isolated from local sediment were capable to grow and to use vinasse as a single source of energy during bioassays, demonstrating possible uses in bioremediation. It was observed that the number of cells/cm-3 has be in the minimum of the order 108 a 109 to an efficient remove of biopolymers (37%) and realized the fosfate is consumed efficiently (99%) only when in concentrations near of 3 mg L-1 , observing low efficient of consume when concentrations are nearly of 9 mg L-1 . The efficiency of degradation was high in the first 6 days of bioassay, not being observed efficient reductions in the others days of analyses.
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