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Title: Caracterização do material particulado fino e grosso e composição da fração inorgânica solúvel em água em São José dos Campos (SP)
Keywords: Atmospheric pollution;  Atmospheric particulate matter;  Inalable particles;  Soluble inorganic ions in water;  Paraiba Valley;  Atmospheric pollution;  Atmospheric particulate matter;  Inalable particles;  Soluble inorganic ions in water;  Paraiba Valley
Issue Date: 2-Mar-2009
Abstract: São José dos Campos, located in the Paraíba Valley, is an area considered highly susceptible to air pollution because of its geography, characterized by mountain ranges that result in Serra do Mar and Mantiqueira, disturbing the general circulation of the atmosphere and threatening the dispersion of air pollutants as well as the high pollution potential emissions from industrial parks that exist in the region and in neighborhood. The objective of this study is to characterize the atmospheric fine (PM2,5) and coarse particulate (PM2,5-10) matter and determine the chemical composition of water-soluble inorganic constituents of these particles. The samples of PM2,5 and PM2,5-10 were weekly collected, in a continuous period of 24 hours with a PM10 dichotomic Sierra-Andersen sampler in São José dos Campos between February 2004 and February 2005, totalizing 60 samples. The annual average concentrations ± standard deviation of PM2,5 and PM2,5-10 were, respectively, 15,7 ± 7,9 and 14,8 ± 8,4 μg m-3. The highest concentrations of fine and coarse particulate matter occurred in the period of drought while lower concentrations were found in rainy period, highlighting the fundamental role of rain in cleaning the atmosphere. NH4 + and SO4 2- ions occurred predominantly in fine particulate matter corresponding to 62% of all constituents and 20% of the mass, on the other hand, Cl-, Na+ and NO3 - ions predominated in coarse particulate matter together amounting 54% of inorganic ions and 11% of the mass. On average 96% of the SO4 2- associated with PM 2,5 equal the Exc-SO4 2-, i.e. other natural and/or anthropic sources not from saltwater. The reason NH4 + / (Exc-SO4 2- + NO3 -) found in PM2,5 equals 1.08 suggesting the formation of (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3 aerosols from human activities. The average deficit of chloride was 42% for PM2,5 and 39% for PM2,5-10. The deficit of Cl- for PM2,5 during the drought period was 4 times higher than the one found in the rainy period, the same was not observed for PM 2,5-10. Over 90% of K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ found in both fine and coarse fractions represent the non-marine parcel (natural and/or antropic) of those ions. The modeling hysplit for air masses retrotrajectories helped identifying long-distance transport episodes, particulate matter of continental and marine origin in samples that showed extremely high chemical composition. The distribution of the rain throughout the study was fundamental for understanding the seasonal behavior of atmospheric fine and coarse particles in Sao Jose dos Campos.
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