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Title: Análise da contaminação por óleo na APA de Guapimirim, RJ: aspectos geoquímicos e socioambientais
Keywords: Ciência Ambiental;  Preservação ambiental;  Guapimirim (RJ);  Resíduo industrial;  Aspecto ambiental;  Poluição;  Baía de Guanabara (RJ);  Metal pesado (Análise);  Guapimirim (RJ);  Área de proteção ambiental;  Sedimentos;  Mangue;  Biodegradação;  Metais Pesados;  contaminação antropogênica;  Hidrocarbonetos poli-aromáticos;  Polyaromatic hydrocarbons
Issue Date: 30-May-2003
Abstract: The Guapimirim Law Protected Area (APA) reveals itself as an environment of contrasts that, at the same time suffers from disordered urban expansion and its consequent polluting loads production, and supports a complex high biodiversity ecosystem. In this study the contamination loads of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and metals of Guapimirim mangrove surface sediments was evaluated in screening way. Samples were collected from 23 stations where were the physico-chemical parameters pH, Eh, salinity and temperature in situ measured. In laboratory, the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations, total organic carbon (TOC), the phosphorus and total heavy metals were analysed in addition the cell biomass and the bacterial cels number, and their activities were measured through the electron transport system (ETSA) and esterase (EST) indicators. The polyaromatic hydrocarbons concentrations as well as heavy metals were compared with those obtained in other similar environments and previous works carried out in Guanabara Bay. The values established in the measurement of physico-chemical parameters are normal for the environment kind; the concentration of PAHs are, in average, inferior to the harmful limits for organisms, however its maximum limits are higher than all reference values; the amounts of organic carbon, phosphorus and bacterial biomass are increased vis a vis of the high concentration of organic matter, domestic residues and extremely negative redox potential. The total heavy metal concentrations are superior to the natural considered ones and all those associated with the organic matter sources present around Guanabara Bay. However the copper concentrations, chromium and mercury have been inferior to the ones obtained in previous studies in the region. The analysis of correlation of all the parameters through the method of Multiple Variable of Pearson s demonstrated that, both the parameters with bigger degree of positive correlation, and bigger negative correlation are associated with the organic matter volume. The conclusion is that the Guapimirim mangrove, despite of the oil spill accident of January of 2000 and the daily input s of industrial effluents do not seem to severely be impacted by hydrocarbons of oil or bioavailable heavy metals. However, the area requires serious care in relation to the volume increase of these contaminants and the management of its structure that can modify this extremely delicate scene.
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