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Title: O Banco Mundial com ator político, intelectual e financeiro (1944-2008)
Keywords: História;  Banco Mundial;  Relação econômica exterior;  Organização internacional;  Neoliberalismo;  Estados Unidos;  Ajuda externa ao desenvolvimento;  History;  World Bank;  United States;  International organization;  Foreign aid to development;  Neoliberalism
Issue Date: 13-Jan-2009
Abstract: This research focuses on the action of the World bank, the pressures that modeled it and the interests it served throughout its history. This work is empirically based on documents from the Bank itself and on a broad foreign literature on the subject. The main hypothesis is that the Bank acts, since its origins, as a political, social and financial actor and it does so due to its singular condition of lender, policy designer, social actor and producer and/or broadcaster of ideas about what to do, how to do, who should do and to whom concerning the capitalist development. Throughout its history, the bank always exploited the synergy between money, political recipes and economic knowledge to broaden its influence and institutionalize its set of policies at the national levels, both through coercion (constraints towards other financiers and loan blockages) and through, more frequently, persuasion (dialogue with governments and technical assistance). The thesis shows that the attributes of power that gradually gave the Bank a single condition amongst the other international organizations created in the post-war came from historical contingencies, institutional decisions and, fundamentally, the North-American supremacy. The bank was, to a large degree, a creation of the United States and its rise to the condition of relevant international organization was backed up, from a political and an economical point of view, by the USA, always the main share holder and most influential member. The relationship whit the USA, materialized as support, injunctions and critique, was decisive for the growth and general setting of the policies and institutional practices of the Bank. In exchange, the USA benefited largely from the Bank s action in economical and political terms, more than any other large share holder, both in short an long terms. The relationship with the North-American power was and continues to be fundamental for the definition of the direction, operational structure and procedures of the Bank. On the other hand, the North-American policy towards the Bank was always the focus of dispute between diverse entrepreneurial, financial, political, ideological and security interests, sometimes radically distinct, concerning the role of multilateral cooperation and foreign assistance to the capitalist development. With the passing of the time, such dispute began to involve an ever growing and diverse number of political and economical actors, including Washington DC based an international NGOs.
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