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|Title:||Uso da cafeina como indicador de contaminação por esgoto doméstico em águas superficiais|
|Keywords:||PPCPs; Indicadores; Contaminação antrópica; Qualidade de água, HPLC-UV/DAD; PPCPs; Indicator; Anthropic contamination; Water quality; HPLC UV/DAD|
|Abstract:||Recent studies around the world have reported the distribution of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in surface water contaminated by sewage effluent. A potential indicator and/or marker of human contamination is caffeine. Caffeine is widely consumed by the population and its use as an indicator of pollution of surface waters by domestic sewage was evaluated in this study. Concentrations of caffeine in samples collected in the river Paquequer, located in the city of Teresópolis/ RJ, were compared with other traditional water quality parameters (phosphate, nitrate, ammonium, electrical conductivity, total coliforms and fecal coliforms), in order to characterize it as an effective indicator of anthropogenic pollution in urban aquatic environment. The river Paquequer has its source in the Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos (PARNASO) and its route crosses the urban area of the city of Teresópolis. Thus, samples of water were collected at seven points along the river, considering the different uses of soil (3 points in the preserved area and 4 points in the urban area) and the periods of rain and drought. The caffeine was detected in using solid phase extraction (SPE) and the high efficiency liquid chromatography (HPLC) with the diode array detector (DAD); their concentrations were found in a range of 0.16 to 47.5 μg L-1, with a detection limit of 0.05 μg L-1 and quantification of 0.15 μg L-1. The lowest concentrations of caffeine were found in samples in the area of PARNASO, the correlation between these concentrations of ammonium and phosphate found in this area have not received any relationship, suggesting the likely presence of natural sources of caffeine, such as vegetation, and not, anthropic. However, the results found along the urban area show an increase in and a significant correlation between the concentrations of caffeine, ammonium and phosphate, in agreement with the increase in the contribution of sewage in the river. These results suggest that caffeine can be used as an indicator of contamination by domestic sewage into surface waters, especially when there are questions about the source of contamination.|
|Appears in Collections:||TEDE sem arquivo|
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