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Title: Comparação da contaminação por metais no setor interno e externo da Baía de Guanabara utilizando Bunodosoma caissarum e Perna perna como espécies bioindicadoras
Keywords: Metais;  Bioindicadores;  Bunodosoma caissarum;  Perna perna;  Baía de Guanabara;  Arquipélago das Cagarras;  Metals;  Bioindicators;  Bunodosoma caissarum;  Perna perna;  Guanabara Bay;  Cagarras Archipelago
Issue Date: 18-Feb-2011
Abstract: Bioindicators are able to indicate the environmental quality of the ecosystems in which they live as well as provide information on the bioavailability of contaminants. Biomonitor organisms can be used to understand the temporal and geographical variations in the bioavailability of contaminants. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the sea anemone Bunodosoma caissarum as a bioindicator species for Guanabara Bay, examining whether it presents a good response in relation to metal concentration in their tissues and also to compare the characteristics of the sea anemone Bunodosoma caissarum as a bioindicator organism with those of the mussel Perna perna. Metal concentrations measured in the organisms from the area potentially contaminated were compared to those found at a control area, the island region adjacent to the bay. Thus, the study area was the Guanabara Bay, the Cagarras Archipelago and also Redonda and Rasa islands. Specimens were sampled in seven sampling points, but it was not possible to find individuals of the species Perna perna at the established places in the inner sector of Guanabara Bay. The organisms were freeze dried and after this procedure were macerated. They were digested in a microwave oven CEM Mars, in a closed system with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. An optical emission spectrometer with inductively coupled plasma source (ICP OES) was used for the determination of metals in the extract. The metals determined in their tissues were Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, V e Zn. Metal concentrations in suspended particulate matter collected during sampling were also measured. Metal concentrations were, in general, larger in Perna perna than in Bunodosoma caissarum, except for barium. The concentrations in both species studied were not similar in general, reflecting the different physiologies and eating habits they have. However, Bunodosoma caissarum and Perna perna presented a significant positive correlation for iron and manganese uptake. The concentrations of these metals in the studied organisms were also positively correlated with those in particulate matter. As observed in this study, Bunodosoma caissarum can be considered a good bioindicator species, as it was found at all sampling stations, and showed a wider distribution in the studied area than Perna perna. Possibly, Bunodosoma caissarum can be considered a biomonitor species for some metals, since it was able to accumulate all the studied metals in their tissues. However, to confirm this supposition further complimentary research about its bioaccumulation characteristics for the different metals will be necessary.
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