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Keywords: Biomonitoramento;  Biomarcadores;  Metalotioneínas;  Histologia;  Esponja;  Hymeniacidon heliophila;  Cádmio;  Biomonitoring;  Biomarkers;  Metallothioneins;  Histology;  Sponge;  Hymeniacidon heliophila;  Cadmium
Issue Date: 27-Mar-2013
Abstract: The metal bioaccumulation potential, the expression of molecular biomarkers (induction of metallothionein-like proteins, MTLPs) and histological biomarkers (number of channels, choanocyte chambers and collagen fibers) were studied in the sponge Hymeniacidon heliophila. Exposure experiments to different concentrations of cadmium (<0.01, 0,05, 0,4 and 4 mg L-1 Cd) along different time intervals (t = 24 hours, 7 days and 14 days) were performed under controlled (aquarium) conditions. The occurrence of MTLPs and metal concentrations potentially involved in inducing the synthesis of these proteins (Cd, Ni, Cu and Zn) were also investigated in H. heliophila directly sampled from the Boa Viagem beach, located in Guanabara Bay (RJ). In the aquarium experiment, the sponge accumulated a maximum concentration of 114 mg Cd kg-1 after 14 days of exposure to 4 mg L-1 of this metal. This corresponds to 14 times the concentration found in sponges found in a control aquarium. Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) combined with monobromobimano derivatization indicated a strong induction MTLPs only in samples exposed to 0,4 mg L-1 Cd in periods of 24 hours and 7 days. The histological techniques used to reveal the morphological effects caused by exposure to Cd revealed that within 24 hours there was a decrease in the quantity of the analyzed structures. In the study carried out in Boa Viagem beach, there was absence of MTLPs induction along the five sampling periods evaluated. The mean concentrations of metals found in the tissue of the sampled sponges were: 0,28 mg kg-1 Cd, 46,3 mg kg-1 Cu, Ni 2 mg kg-1 and 965 mg kg-1 Zn. These values are higher than concentrations reported for other organisms from Guanabara Bay. Thus, the high efficiency in accumulating metals (found in the Boa Viagem beach) and the ability to induce MTLPs and histological responses (under high Cd exposure) indicate possible uses of H. heliophila in future biomonitoring programs.
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