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Title: Células progenitoras endoteliais, endotelina-1 e marcadores de disfunção endotelial em indivíduos sob risco cardiometabólico em repouso e após exercício
Keywords: Células progenitoras endoteliais;  Endotelina-1;  Moléculas de adesão;  Metaloproteinase de matriz-9;  Síndrome metabólica;  Exercício;  Endothelial progenitor cells;  Endothelin-1;  Adhesion molecules;  Matrix metalloproteinase 9;  Metabolic syndrome;  Exercise;  MEDICINA;  CIÊNCIAS CARDIOVASCULARES;  Células-tronco;  Células endoteliais;  Síndrome X metabólica
Issue Date: 15-Jul-2013
Abstract: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and other endothelial dysfunction markers are usually altered in subjects with increased cardiometabolic risk. Exercise in turn mobilizes EPCs to peripheral blood, and consequently improves endothelial function. However, it is unclear whether these mechanisms are preserved in subjects with increased cardiometabolic risk and with no chronic diseases. The overall aim of this thesis was to measure the levels and/or activity of EPCs, ET-1 and other endothelial dysfunction markers in subjects with increased cardiometabolic risk, as well as to determine the effects of a single bout of exercise on the EPCs and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Three studies were done to compose this thesis. The first one revised systematically 12 original articles and found that long/ultra-long exercise promoted a sharper mobilization of CPEs when compared to submaximal or maximal exercise. The second study evaluated 24 subjects, 14 with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and 10 healthy. Endothelial dysfunction was evaluated by measuring serum adhesion molecules. EPCs and MMP-9 were evaluated before and after a single bout session of aerobic exercise. MetS subjects presented an impaired endothelial function at rest and altered response of CPEs and MMP-9 to exercise. The third study assessed the ET-1 mediated vasoconstrictor tone in 40 overweight/obese subjects, 20 with and 20 without MetS. Forearm blood flow responses to intra-arterial infusion of selective ETA receptor blockade and nonselective ETA/B receptor blockade were determined. MetS was associated with higher ET-1 vasoconstrictor tone in overweight/obese subjects mediated by ETA receptor subtype. It is concluded that presence of early MetS is able to alter the endothelial function and enhance ET-1 vasoconstrictor activity in overweight/obese subjects. Furthermore, subjects with MetS failed to increase the number of CPEs after exercise, which may be explained by an increase in MMP-9 activity in this group
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