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Title: A Política de Educação em Niterói e o Problema da Evasão Escolar
Other Titles: Education policy in Niterói and the problem of Circumvention School
Keywords: Evasão escolar;  Educação;  Política educacional;  Truancy;  Education;  Educational policy
Issue Date: 17-Nov-2014
Abstract: This study was designed to seek understanding of Niterói s current education policy, more specifically, the one devoted to absenteeism and school dropout in fundamental public school education. First, the aim was to map the processes which prompted either attending or dropping out of students in the first segment fundamental school in the municipal public sector in Niterói in order to, then, correlate irregular attendance/dropping out determiners with the knowledge held by technical-pedagogical team and teachers about it. It was also a goal of the research to investigate the mechanisms applied in the field of education to manage irregular attendance and school dropout of students enrolled in fundamental school first segment in the Municipal Education Network in Niterói as far as education policy, school management and pedagogical work concern. In order to catch the education field dynamics, we chose, according to methodology, to carry out in depth interviews, from the design previously defined, with teachers, pedagogues and school principals; focal groups with those responsible for fundamental education students. We also applied document analysis to a great extent. According to the study results, the factors that explain irregular attendance and school dropout are associated with familyschool relationship; the impact generated by insecurity in the lives of students and their families and education itself, in its environmental, structural and pedagogical aspects. The lack of knowledge by education operators of those factors that drive students away from school is extremely relevant, because it signals (together with family representation) to the perspective that student absence from school is the sole problem of families. In this view, several consequences can be highlighted, such as the deepening of the already difficult school-family relationship; the minimizing of a problem that is a public one and the reduction of intersectoral actions. As to what concerns the mechanisms applied to the management of irregular attendance and school dropout, in the dimension of public policies, considering them in federal and municipal levels, there is a discrepancy between federal policy guidelines and their implementation in the local level, as the municipal entity did not prioritize the issuein its agenda, not regarding, therefore, the issue of irregular attendance and school dropout of political relevance. By not performing one of the priorities in the municipal education policy agenda, the management of school absenteeism was restricted to idiosyncrasies: perspectives, possibilities and individual decision, thus restricted to the pedagogical and school management dimension. Such view gives the field of education an insular configuration, imposing a burden to those who act within the school and, depending on personal positioning, it can breed a feeling of failure, immobility, or of an almost heroic effort to deal with the issue. The isolation endured by education operators is caused, mostly, by the impermeability of the field, which makes it difficult for the inclusion of other institutions that act daily with the population served by the school. Despite the difficulties, education operators see ways out of the problem. But, these depend on the design laid out by public managers for education policies.
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